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YouGov

Company

Runs online opinion polls on a variety of issues internationally. They have pools of people that they ask survey questions, and also pull in data from social media and other sources to help brands understand their image. They are starting to get into the audience segmentation business too. YouGov is quite large and has acquired a number of related companies.
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Qualtrics

Company

Widely used survey creation platform. Qualtrics allows creation of surveys in many formats, which can be delivered via websites (including via sites like Mechanical Turk), email, SMS, offline, etc. They also offer survey-related consulting and research services.
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HaystaqDNA

Company

Company formed by some of the people who did microtargeting on campaigns for Barack Obama and Michael Bloomberg. Xaxis released products that use HaystaqDNA's National Voter Database of 166 million voters in the 2016 election.
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TargetSmart

Company

Primarily a database provider, with databases of voters, mobile phone numbers, consumer habits, campaign contributions, and more. They make software to help campaigns utilize and effectively combine these databases in a variety of campaigning techniques. TargetSmart also offers help campaigning, from predictive analytics to communications management. In 2017, a portion of their voter database was accidentally posted online by one of their customers.
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AggregateIQ

Company

AggregateIQ makes campaign management software, including tools for managing outreach campaigns and voter databases. Most notably, they created Ripon as part of a contract with SCL Group, which was used as a database for Ted Cruz's campaign. They also built software for automating advertising campaigns. Upguard found AggregateIQ's Gitlab repository online in March 2018 and published a series of articles analyzing their software and clients.
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Equals3

Company

AI-managed marketing software. Equals3's Lucy software helps people automate marketing campaigns by combining a variety of data sources and collecting additional information on the people involved to more effectively target them. Their software also builds personality profiles of people in their database based on data from a variety of sources. They appear to be working with the Democratic Party in Alaska because in 2017 they accidentally posted TargetSmart's data on Alaskan voters online
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10x Psychometrics

Company

A psychometrics consulting company founded by a professor who did a PhD studying OCEAN (five factor) personality models. It is unclear what industries they work in.
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Philometrics

Company

Uses machine learning to forecast how additional people would answer a survey, a method they call "SurveyExtender". The examples they give pertain to the United States and they have multiple companies incorporated there, so it is likely they work there. Some of the same people involved as Cambridge Analytica.
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Newlink Group

Company

A large, general marketing company that works on political campaigns (in addition to working with governments and in the private sector).
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pig.gi

Company

Pays people with phone time and similar for filling out surveys on a variety of topics on their app. They also display ads for brands on their app. pig.gi shared some data with Cambridge Analytica but reportedly severed ties after recent scandals.
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Global Science Research

Company

Created psychological profiles for marketing purposes. They offered three main products/services- BrandAnalyzer, BrandAnalyzer API, and custom analytics. BrandAnalyzer shows psychological profiles of customers of over 15,000 brands. The BrandAnalyzer API provides similar psychological analysis using social media data from clients. The custom analytics are custom psychological profiling studies, likely similar to what they offered Cambridge Analytica.<br />Global Science Research collected data on over 50 million people via a Facebook application for personality tests called thisyourdigitallife. They then gave this data to Cambridge Analytica.
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L2 Political

Company

Maintains databases of voters and non-voting adults along with contact information, purchasing behavior, and demographic data. L2 sells this data and makes software for analyzing it.
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comScore

Company

Audience measurement and analysis company. comScore asks people to install monitoring software on their computer in exchange for various benefits. This software records their browsing activity and comScore sells this to marketing companies and campaigns. comScore also collects data from other sources, including TV audience measurement and surveys. They are a huge company, with offices in nearly two dozen countries.
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Facebook

Company

Facebook allows targeting of advertisements based on interests, behaviors, location, and demographics. It also allows targeting groups like website visitors, app users, and audiences that look like existing audiences. It also provides a list of companies who can assist with advertising on Facebook. including data brokers who can augment custom audience lists. Additionally, data is available via the API and some app developers collect data from users via their apps, as Global Science Research did (and then sold it to Cambridge Analytica). Similar services are also offered on Instagram.
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Applecart

Company

Uses network analysis based on a variety of data sources to infer political viewpoints and leverage relationships to influence voters.
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Gabinete de Comunicación Estratégica

Company

General electoral strategy company using mostly traditional methods such as surveys and focus groups to analyze audiences. Though, someone who worked for them said on LinkedIn that they use microtargeting as well. They appear to be quite open about who they work with and have a list of customers on their website.
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Psicología Política

Company

Offers a range of services including assisting with surveys, literature review, speech writing, and building profiles using "las técnicas utilizadas por los organismos de inteligencia nacionales para construir perfiles psicológicos de los jefes extranjeros, dirigentes nacionales y líderes estatales."<br />The founder describes his work as follows: "As a behavioural and political scientist I offer customised experimental behavioural research, demographic segmentation, and strategic communications advice to understand public opinion, consumer and voter behaviour, and adherences to both political parties and commercial brands. My consultancy services focus on the emotional and psychological mechanisms behind human behaviour to develop effective policies and clear political messages to your constituents, electors, and target audiences."
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Liegey Muller Pons

Company

Full-service political marketing company focused on European campaigns. They combined traditional campaigning techniques like canvassing with more advanced databases about voters, in particular their 50+ One voter database software. Their work seems to focus more on optimizing canvassing using data and campaign management rather than social media campaigns. They work on both political campaigns, as well as canvassing and surveys around political/social issues or for trade unions. Due to limitations on data available in Europe, they generally start with data at the neighborhood level rather than the individual level and collect additional data through door-to-door canvassing.
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Datametrix

Company

Monitors discussion of campaigns online, and identifies influencers and potential voters.
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ENODO Global

Company

They have documents on their website discussing their analytics methodology and examining how these techniques could be applied to various political contexts, including in Mexico and Colombia.
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Acxiom

Company

Major data broker that collects data from a wide variety of sources. They sell data and match up the identities of people across data sources. Acxiom also offers consulting services to help organizations use their data. They created a website (https://aboutthedata.com) that explains how targeted advertising works and offers to let people control how their data is used, but also likely collects data in the process.
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Cambridge Analytica

Company

A data-driven political marketing company that worked on many different campaigns around the world. Cambridge Analytica uses data from a variety of sources combined with psychological profiles and surveys to target advertisements. It has been at the center of recent scandals due to the misuse of Facebook data when working on the Trump campaign.<br />An undercover investigation revealed that in some cases they may conceal their involvement in elections with front companies/partner companies or use more dubious tactics such as bribery and honey traps. Cambridge Analytica was also working on a cryptocurrency to enable people to sell their data to advertisers.<br />Due to a series of scandals, Cambridge Analytica and many of its associated companies were closed. However, Cambridge Analytica is far from unique and many other companies use similar techniques and data.
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Amazon Mehanial Turk

Company

Amazon Mechanical Turk is a platform where researchers can post surveys as well as a variety of mundane tasks that (currently or historically) are difficult for machines to perform(such as image classification and transcription),. In exchange, people all over the world are paid a little bit to complete the tasks.
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Twitter

Company

Twitter is a social media website that also sells data and advertisements. Companies and researchers can buy data from particular accounts, coming from certain geographic areas, or about certain topics. Continuous access to various quantities of data can be purchased, or historical data can be purchased one time. A subset of this data is available for free via Twitter's API.<br />Twitter allows companies to target advertisements based on lists of accounts/emails/phone numbers, audiences like known customers or followers of other accounts, website visitors or app users, search queries, interests, devices, geographic area, purchasing behaviors (based on data from data brokers), language, or gender. Users are then shown advertisements, usually in the form of tweets, and advertisers pay based on the number of impressions, clicks, engagements, followers, etc. Twitter operates its advertisement program and sells data in most countries.
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Tasty Data

Company

TastyData seems to have removed their Twitter, LinkedIn, and website around the time the Cambridge Analytica scandal broke. They allowed companies to analyze and monitor social media profiles in real time and then used IBM's personality insights service to build psychological profiles. This service "uses linguistic analysis to extract cognitive and social characteristics from input text such as email, text messages, tweets, forum posts, and more."<br />In addition to their political work, Tasty Data appears to have worked on the prediction of electricity prices in Mexico.

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