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TargetSmart

Company

Primarily a database provider, with databases of voters, mobile phone numbers, consumer habits, campaign contributions, and more. They make software to help campaigns utilize and effectively combine these databases in a variety of campaigning techniques. TargetSmart also offers help campaigning, from predictive analytics to communications management. In 2017, a portion of their voter database was accidentally posted online by one of their customers.
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Equals3

Company

AI-managed marketing software. Equals3's Lucy software helps people automate marketing campaigns by combining a variety of data sources and collecting additional information on the people involved to more effectively target them. Their software also builds personality profiles of people in their database based on data from a variety of sources. They appear to be working with the Democratic Party in Alaska because in 2017 they accidentally posted TargetSmart's data on Alaskan voters online
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L2 Political

Company

Maintains databases of voters and non-voting adults along with contact information, purchasing behavior, and demographic data. L2 sells this data and makes software for analyzing it.
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Acxiom

Company

Major data broker that collects data from a wide variety of sources. They sell data and match up the identities of people across data sources. Acxiom also offers consulting services to help organizations use their data. They created a website (https://aboutthedata.com) that explains how targeted advertising works and offers to let people control how their data is used, but also likely collects data in the process.
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Cambridge Analytica

Company

A data-driven political marketing company that worked on many different campaigns around the world. Cambridge Analytica uses data from a variety of sources combined with psychological profiles and surveys to target advertisements. It has been at the center of recent scandals due to the misuse of Facebook data when working on the Trump campaign.<br />An undercover investigation revealed that in some cases they may conceal their involvement in elections with front companies/partner companies or use more dubious tactics such as bribery and honey traps. Cambridge Analytica was also working on a cryptocurrency to enable people to sell their data to advertisers.<br />Due to a series of scandals, Cambridge Analytica and many of its associated companies were closed. However, Cambridge Analytica is far from unique and many other companies use similar techniques and data.
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Twitter

Company

Twitter is a social media website that also sells data and advertisements. Companies and researchers can buy data from particular accounts, coming from certain geographic areas, or about certain topics. Continuous access to various quantities of data can be purchased, or historical data can be purchased one time. A subset of this data is available for free via Twitter's API.<br />Twitter allows companies to target advertisements based on lists of accounts/emails/phone numbers, audiences like known customers or followers of other accounts, website visitors or app users, search queries, interests, devices, geographic area, purchasing behaviors (based on data from data brokers), language, or gender. Users are then shown advertisements, usually in the form of tweets, and advertisers pay based on the number of impressions, clicks, engagements, followers, etc. Twitter operates its advertisement program and sells data in most countries.

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